Community Development Programs in India
Community development has been used especially in the decade from 1950 to 1960 to describe a comprehensive method of raising standard of living in which the emphasis is on the participation of people themselves albeit with the assistance of both governmental and non governmental organisation work carried out under this approach has covered an immensely wide scope, for building of roads and dams to the running of community centers and literacy classes (Kuenstler, 1961)
- In India, the term community development refers governmental efforts to bring about social and economic development, particularly in rural areas.
- Community development refers to creation of social services, human development, community education program and other welfare programs.
- Community development in fact was seen as a movement designed promote better living for the whole community, with active participation if possible at the community initiatives, but if this initiatives is not forthcoming spontaneously, then by making use of techniques to arouse and stimulate it, in order to secure its active and enthusiastic response to the movement (Mukerji, 1961)
- The term ‘community development’ used to describe a goal of bringing about social and economic development in areas which are underdeveloped. It was coined to refer to governmental projects undertaken during the 1950,s is most of the developing countries which has just acquired on independent status after years of colonial rule.
- Sunders (1958) describes community development as the process of ‘change from a condition where one or two people or a small elite within or without the local community make decision for the rest of the people, to a condition where people themselves make decisions about matters of common concern, form a state of minimum to one of maximum cooperation, form a condition where all resources and specialists come from outside to one where local people make the most of their resources.
- Community development can be considered as a goal and community organisation as the process or the method by which community development can be achieved.
Difference between community organisation and community development
- Community development programs are made available by the government to its people basically for their economic development and progress. The main emphasis is on improving the condition of people with the help of government services. Community organization is a process which strives to make adjustment between communities felt needs and community resources.
- Community development aims to provide services to the people mainly for their economic improvement in community organization, community services are organised and planned by themselves under the guidance of a community organizer.
- Community development programs are practiced mainly in underdeveloped or developing communities for economic enlistment of the people. The basic aim of community organisation is to develop cooperative and collaborative attitude among people in the community.
- Community organisation worker is not necessarily a government functionary. He is skilled in community planning but the functionaries of community are expert in removing economic back wardens.
Important Community Development Programs in India:-
Shriniketan in 1921 a rural reconstruction program initiated by Rabindranath Tagore and Mr. Elmtirst assisted the project. The main aim of the project was agriculture, village welfare cooperation, Scout organization, industries, education etc.
- Gurgaon Project :
The Gurgaon project of rural welfare was conceived and worked out by Mr. F.L. Brayne in 1920 The objectives of the project were increasing agriculture production, stoppage of wastage on social functions of the society, improvement of health etc.
- Marthandam Project :
This projects can be regarded as joint venture of YMCA and Christian Churches. The objectives of the project were to develop education, health and economic aspect of life, upliftment of moral and spiritual aspect, social development etc.
- Gandhian Constructive Program at Sevagram : The project was started in first at Sevagram in 1920 and later Wardha in 1938. The objectives were to be conceived through self helps, dignity of labor, self respect, simple and honored living etc.
- Rural Development Program :
This was a Government porgam initiated in 1935-36 with the announcement of grant of Rs. 1 Crore by the Government of India. The program aims at encouragement of village industries improvement of village communication, rural sanitation and a recreation, medical aid, agriculture etc.
- Etawah Pilot Project :
After the Second World War, a project for rural development and welfare was started in Etawah (U.P.) in September 1948 with the active assistance of Mr. Albert Myer and Mr. Horace Holmes. The objectives of the project were to measure the extent of agriculture development in terms of production and social improvement, initiatives, confidence and cooperation of the people were also evaluated.
- Firka Development Scheme :
The intensive Rural Reconstruction Scheme popularly known as the Firka development scheme was launched by the Government of Madras towards the end of 1946. It was to improve the living conditions in the area and create in me villagers an active interest in their problems to make them self sufficient and self reliant.
- Sarvodaya Scheme :
The Sarvodaya scheme is also based on the Gandhian principles. The state of Bombay has been taking active interest in the scheme since 1948-49. The scheme emphasise on the cooperative principles and methods and tries to inculcate the habits of self help, mutual aid and habit of saving among the people.