Education Policies of India
National Policy on Education 1968- In the post independence period a major concern of the Government of India and of the States have been to give increasing attention to education a factor vital to national progress and security.
In the First National Policy on Education, 1968 the Government of India laid down the following principles:
- Efforts should be made for free and compulsory education to fulfill the directive principle under Article 45 of the constitution.
- To improve the status, emoluments and education of teachers
- Development of language
- Equalization of education opportunities
- Identification of talent
- Science education and research
- Education for agriculture and industry
- Production of qualitative books
- Reform in education
- Improvement in secondary and University education
- Part time education and correspondence courses
- Spread of literacy and adult education
- Education for minority
National Policy on Education 1986
National policy on education was adopted by the parliament in May 1986. A committee was set up under the chairmanship of Acharya Rammurthi to review national policy on education and to make recommendation for its modification.
The national policy on education recommend following goals:Universalize elementary education
- To prevent possibilities of adult illiteracy by reducing drop outs in schools.
- To accelerate non formal education and make education reaches the remotest corner of the country.
- To make provisions of elementary and adult education
Scientific and Technological Education
- Strengthen educational television and radio program capabilities and provide wider access to them.
- To improve scientific education in schools
- Promote rural technology and appropriate technology to achieve economic development
- To develop scientific temper among youth
Social and Cultural Development
- To create awareness regarding our cultural heritage to develop appreciation of diverse culture of our country
- To promote values of national integration and secularism
- To provide equal opportunities to all communities for education
- To provide development of Indian languages
Human Resource Development
- To create awareness about increasing levels of population and the hazards of environment
- To develop healthy individuals capable of contributing to the social and economic development of the country
- To develop social and vocational skills
Equalization of Opportunities
- To provide equal opportunities to the scheduled caste, scheduled tribes, backward class and minority student
- To provide educational facilities to physically challenged by setting up special institutions
- To make special provisions for women’s education
To enlarge the scope of operation black board scheme by providing three reasonably large rooms that are usable in all weather and black boards, maps, charts, toys other necessary learning aids and school library
- Consolidation and expansion of higher education institutions
- Development of autonomous college and departments
- Redesigning courses
- Training of teachers
- Strengthening research
- Improvement in efficiency
- Rural universities
- Open University and distance education
- Delinking degree from jobs
- Innovation research and development
Major Government Programs related to Education
Sarva Siksha Abhiyan: Launched in 2001 Sarva Siksha Abhiyan is one of India’s major flagship program for universalization of education.
Sarva Siksha Abhiyan Goals are:
- Enrollment of all children in school, education guarantee centers, alternative schools
- Retention of all children till the upper primary stage
- Bridging the gender and social category gaps in enrollment, retention and learning
- Ensuring that there is significant enhancement in the learning achievement levels of children at the primary and upper primary stage
Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya Scheme
This scheme provides for setting up of residential upper primary schools for girls of SC, ST, OBC and minority communities. This scheme targets areas of scattered habitations
Mid Day Meal Scheme
With a view to enhancing enrollment, retention and attendance and simultaneously improving nutritional levels among children the mid day meal scheme was launched in 15 August 1995.
Mahila Samakhya Scheme
The scheme was started in 1989 to translate the goals enshrined in the national policy on education into a concrete program for the education and empowerment of women in rural areas particularly those from socially and economically marginalized groups. The mahila sanghs or women forums at the village level provide the women a space to meet, reflect, ask questions and articulate their thoughts and needs and make informed choices
National Council for Teachers Education
The National Council for Teachers Education (NCTE) was established on 1959 with a view to achieve planned and coordinated development of teacher education system throughout the country and for regulations and proper maintenance of norms and standards of teacher education.
Right to Education
By 86th amendment of the constitution in 2002, Article 21 A was inserted in the constitution which provides free and compulsory education for all children in the age group of six to fourteen years as a fundamental right.
University Grants Commission
The University Grants Commission (UGC) which came into existence on 28th December 1953 became a statutory organization by an act of parliament in 1956. It is a national body for the coordination, determination and maintenance of standards of university education.