Five Year Plans

Five Year Plans

1.First Five Year Plan (1951-56)

The basic objectives of our planning were growth, employment, self reliance and social justice. At the first five year plan (1951-56) Indian was faced with three problems influx of refugees, severe food shortage and mounting inflation. India has also current disequilibrium in the economy caused by the Second World War and the partition of the country. The objectives of the first five year plan were rehabilitation of refugee and rapid agriculture development. Although program could not make much headway because of the inadequate administrative structure and financial allocation. The establishment of central social welfare board in 1953 was the most significant achievement during this period. The state social welfare board was also set up to supplement the efforts of central social welfare board. At the end of the plan period in 1956 Indian Institute of Technology were started as major technical institute, University Grants Commission was also set up in November 1956 to take care of the higher education system of the country.

2.Second Five Year Plan (1956-61)

At this stage it was felt that Indian economy had reached a stage where agriculture could be assigned a lower priority and a forward thrust made in the development of heavy and basic industries of the economy for a more rapid advance in future. The basic philosophy of the second plan was thereof to give a big push to the economy so that it enters the take off stage. The government announced its industrial policy in 1956 accepting the establishment of socialistic pattern of society as the goal of economic policy. This necessitated the orientation of economic policy to confirm the national goal of ‘socialist economy’.

It emphasized that “social welfare is concerned with the well being of entire community and not only of particular section of the society which may be handicapped in one way or other. Targeting the 25 percent increase in the national income through rapid industrialization actual achievement was only 20 percent. Hydroelectric power projects and five steel mills at Bhilai, Durgapur and Rourkela were established.The inputs on modern industrial development towards building a domestic consumptions good sector in India was given by a well known statistician Mr.Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis also known as ‘Mahalanobis Model’

3.Third Five Year Plan (1961-66)

By beginning of third five year plan Indian planner felt that the Indian economy had entered in “Take off stage” and that the first two plan had generated an institution structure needed for rapid economic development. Consequently the third plan was set as its goal the establishment of self reliant and self generating economy. But the working of second plan had also shown that the rate of growth of agriculture production was the main limiting factor in India’s economic development. The third plan accordingly gave top priority to agriculture but it also laid adequate emphasis on the development of the basic industries. However because of the conflict with China in 1962, Nehru death in 1964, Pakistan war in 1965 and Shastri’s death in 1966 the approach to the third plan was later shifted from development to defense. The third five year plan laid special emphasis on women and children welfare. Most significant event was the establishment of department of social welfare in the country in 1964. Providing for the first time a fully fledged administrative set up to sponsor and implement program.

4.Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74)

Due to some disaster experience in last five year plan three annual plan (1966-69) described as plan holiday were implemented. The forth plan set before itself the two principle objectives of “Growth with distributive justice” and “Progressive achievement of self reliance”. The plan gave special attention to the need of the destitute children, family planning program and technical training. The Indira Gandhi government nationalized 14 major Indian banks, green revolution in some part of the country also advanced agriculture production.

5.Fifth Five Year Plan (1974-79)

The fifth plan was introduced at the time when the country reeling under a veritable economic crisis arising out of a runaway inflation and the hike in oil prices. The main objectives were set as removal of poverty and attainment of self reliance through promotion of higher rate of growth and better distribution of income. Social welfare program such as minimum need program were introduced. Accordingly several new program were launched important among them was Integrated Child Development Scheme launched in 2nd October 1975 popularly known as ICDS, National Policy on Children,1974 and setting up of the National Children Board.

6.Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85)

This model has criticized the Nehru model of development responsible for growing unemployment. For the concentration of economic power in the hand of few powerful business and industrial family for the widening of inequalities of income and wealth and for mounting of poverty. The plan sought to reconcile the objectives of higher production with those of greater employment so that millions of people living below poverty line could benefit there from. Poverty alleviation was given priority and Integrated Rural Development Program, National Rural Youth Employment Program and Tribal Rural Youth for Self Employment scheme was launched. The sixth five year plan was a milestone in women development first time the separate chapter for women and development was included in the plan document.

7.Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90)

Country had enjoyed a reasonable rate of growth during the sixth plan. This plan sought to emphasis policies and programs which could accelerate the growth in food grain production, increase employment opportunity and raise productivity. Social services and human resource development, employment guarantee program, National Rural Employment Program, Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Program, Self Employment Program for urban Poor, Jawahar Rojgar Yojna, National Education Policy,1986 and National Literacy Mission,1988 were launched.

8.Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97)

There was a series of changes in the government in the center. The forth version of eighth five year plan was approved when the country was facing series of social and economic crisis. The Narsima Rao government initiated the process of fiscal reforms as also of economic reforms with a view to provide a new dimension to the economy. The eighth five year plan attempted to accelerate economic growth and improve the quality of life of the common man. The plan created facilities for universalization of elementary education, health for all by the year 2000, mid day meal program was also launched in August 1995.

9.Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002)

The focus of the ninth five year plan was “Growth with Social Justice and equality”. This objective was sought to be achieved through a policy of concentration on agriculture and rural development to provide more employment, ensuring food and nutrition security to all, providing basic minimum need, empowerment of women, sustainable development in rural areas and promotion of panchayat raj institutions.

10.Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-2007)

There was a significant growth during last decade for the tenth five year plan following objectives was identified. Reduction of poverty ratio by 5 percent points by 2007 and 15 percent points by 2012, providing gainful high quality employment in the additional labor force over the 10th plan period, all children in school by 2003, all children to complete five years of school by 2007, increase literacy rate to 75 percent by 2007,reduction of infant mortality rate to 45 per thousand live birth by 2007 and 28 by 2012 reduction of mothers mortality rate to 2 per thousand births by 2007 and 1 by 2012, increase forest and tree cover to 25 percent by 2007 and 33 percent by 2012.The tenth five year plan also saw the advent of National Rural Employment Guarantee Act,2005.Social and economic empowerment of women and gender justice was also focused.

11.Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12)

The target set for the eleventh five year plan were as follows, create 70 million new work opportunities and reduce educated unemployment to below 5 percent, raise real wage rate of unskilled workers by 20 percent, reduce dropout rate of children from elementary school from 52.2 percent in 2003-4 to 20 percent by 2011-12, increase literacy rate of persons of age 7 years or above to 85 percent, reduce infant mortality rate to 28 and maternal mortality ratio to 1 per 1000 live births, reduce total fertility rate to 2.1, provide clean drinking water for all by 2009,raise the sex ratio for age group 0-6 to 935 by 2011-12 and to 950 by 2016-17,connect every village by telephone by November 2007 and provide broad band connectivity to all villages by 2012, increase forest and tree cover by 5 percentage point. The National Rural Health Mission and The Right to Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 was also enacted and launched during this period.

12.The Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-17)

The main objective of the twelfth five year plan is “Faster, sustainable and more inclusive growth”. The plan aims towards betterment of the infrastructure projects as well as improving the conditions of SC,ST and OBC and minorities, generate at least 50 million employment opportunities for youth, eliminating gender and social gap in education, achieve universal road connectivity and access to power for all villages, access banking service for 90 percent of households, major welfare facilities and subsidies through Aadhaar, enhance energy efficiency in all sectors with focus on renewable energy i.e. wind, solar and storage hydro. Overall the current five year plan combines the proper program approach with efforts to get a growth pattern which is faster and inherently more inclusive.