National Environment & Programs
National Environment Policy 2006
The policy evolved from the recognition that only such development is sustainable, which respects ecological constraints and the imperatives of justice. The objectives stated in the policy are to be realized through various strategic interventions by different public authorities at central, state and local government level.
The principles followed in the policy are:
- Human beings are at the center of sustainable development concerns
- Right to development must be fulfilled so as to equitably meet developmental and environmental needs of present and future generations
- In order to achieve sustainable development environmental protection shall constitute an integral part of the development process and cannot be considered in isolation from it.
- Where there are credible threats of serious or irreversible damage to key environmental resources, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost effective measures to prevent environmental degradation.
- In various public actions for environmental conservation, economic efficiency would be sought to be realized. Objectives of the policy
- Conservation of critical environmental resources
- Intra-generational equity: livelihood security for the poor
- Inter-generational equity
- Integration of environmental concerns in economic and social development
- Efficiency in environmental resource use
- Environmental governance
- Enhancement of resources for environmental conservations
Major Government Programs related to Environment Protection:-Forest Policy 1988
The forest policy in India was launched in 1988. The basic objectives of the national forest policy 1988 were:
- Maintenance of environment stability through preservation and restoration of ecological balance that has been adversely disturbed by serious depletion of the forest of the country
- Conserving natural heritage of the country by preserving the remaining natural forest with the vast variety of flora and fauna which represents the remarkable biodiversity and genetic resources of the country
- Checking soil erosion and denudation in the catchment areas of rivers, lakes, reservoirs in the interest of soil and water conservation for mitigating floods and droughts.
- Checking the extension of sand dunes in the desert areas of Rajasthan
- Increasing the forest cover in the country through a forestation and social forestry
- Meeting the requirements of fuel wood, fodder, minor forest produce and small timber for the rural and tribal population.
Project Tiger (National Tiger Conservation Authority)
The ‘Project Tiger’ was launched in April 1973 with the objective to ensure maintenance of viable population of tiger in the country. A tiger census published in 2011 estimated that there are 1,706 tigers roaming free in the country.
The project elephant was launched by the government in 1991-92. The objectives were to protect elephant their habitat corridors, to address issues of man animal conflict and welfare of domesticated elephants.
Central Pollution Control Board
The central pollution control board performs functions as laid down under the water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, and the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981. It is responsible for planning and executing comprehensive nationwide programs for prevention and control of water and air pollution.
Climate change is a global environmental phenomenon caused primarily by the building up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide etc. The forth assessment report of the inter governmental panel on climate change brought out in 2007 has projected that human induced climate change if not addressed may result in rising temperature, changed rainfall patterns and increased severity and frequency of floods, droughts and cyclones which can severely impact livelihood, especially of the poor in the developing countries. Therefore, India is committed to control its green house gas emission and ozone layer protection by all means. A national carbon aerosol program is also envisaged under Indian network of climate change assessment.In the recent change government of India ratifies Paris climate treaty to control the emission of green house gases.