National Health Policy And Health Programs
The main aim of national health policy is to achieve an acceptable standard of good health among the general population of the country through an increased access to the decentralized public health system. The objective is planned to be achieved by establishing new infrastructure in existing institutions. Equitable access to health service will receive focus and emphasis will be given to increasing the aggregate public health investment through a substantially increased contribution by the central government. The target is to increase the contribution of private sector in providing health services to all. It has been emphasized that the national health program should be progressively carried out through the state Government decentralized public health machinery and through autonomous bodies at state/district level.
In addition to the above thrust area, various other issues have also been dealt upon in the national health policy 2002 this includes the expected roles of different participating groups in the health sector –Government, private sector, Non government organization and other members of civil society, disease surveillance, health personnel their norms and education, nursing personnel, medical research and ethics, urban health, mental health, women’s health and impact of globalization on the health sector.
Major Government Programs related to Health:-
National Rural Health Mission
The national rural health mission (NRHM) was launched on 12th April 2005 to provide accessible, affordable, accountable and qualitative health services to the poorest households in the remotest rural regions. The thrust of the mission is on establishing a fully functional, community owned, decentralized healthy delivery system with inter sectorial convergence at all levels.
National Urban Health Mission
The proposed urban health mission (NUHM) aims to address the public health care needs of urban population.
IN 1952, India launched the world’s first national program emphasizing family planning to the extent necessary for reducing birth rates and to establish the population at a level consistent with the requirement of national economy.
India’s population as per 2011 census was 1.21 billion second only to China in the world. India accounts for 2.4 percent of the world’s area yet it supports more than 17.5 percent of the world’s population.
Total Fertility Rate
Total fertility rate in India has declined 2.5 from 2.6 in 2009.
Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR)
Maternal mortality rate is defined as the number of maternal death per 1000, 00 live birth due to causes related to pregnancy or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, regardless of the site or duration of pregnancy. The national average of maternal mortality rate is 212 per 100, 00 live births.
Janani Surksha Yojana (JSY)
The scheme was launched on 1st June 2011. The initiative entitles all pregnant women delivering in public health institutions to absolutely free and expense delivery including caesarean section.
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
Infant mortality is defined as the probability of dying before the first birthday. As per the sample registration system 2010 the infant mortality rate for the country was 47 per 1000 live births.
Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex selection) Act, 1994
The child sex ratio for the age group 0-6 years as per census 2011 (provisional) has dipped further to 914 girls as against 927 per thousand boys recorded in 2001 census. This is worst dip since 1947. In order to check the female infanticide, the Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex selection) Act, 1994 was brought in to operation from 1st January 1996.
Universal Immunization Program
Immunization program is one of the key interventions for protection of children from life threatening conditions which are preventable. Immunization program was introduced in India in the year 1978 as expanded program of immunization.
Pulse Polio Immunization
In pursuance of the world health assembly resolution of 1988, the pulse polio immunization program was started nation wise from 1995 to eradicate polio from India covering children in the age group of 0 to 3 years. As a result only 1 polio case was reported in 2011 in the month of January 2011.
National Mental Health Program
National mental health program was started in 1982 with the objectives to ensure availability and accessibility of minimum mental health care for all, to encourage mental health knowledge and skills and to promote community participation in mental health service development and to stimulate self help in the community.
National AIDS Control Program
The first national AIDS control program (NACP) was launched in 1992 for prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in India. This was followed by NACP IInd in 1999, NACP IIIrd in 2007 and NACP IVth in 2007-12.