What is Integrated Approach to Social Work Practice ?
Integrated concept is largely based on social system theory which assumes that each system is open to exchange from and influence by other system in its environment. It assumes that change in one system has the potential to influence the others to which it is relating. It is possible to believe that a change towards a particular ‘end state’ can be brought about by variety of means. No one method or one level of intervention is necessary uniquely suited to bring about the desired change. Therefore, an integrated approach to social work believes that higher degree of integration of methods of practice will change the way or approach of social workers and will produce more options and choice to practice professional social work.
What is Society ?
the term ‘society’ refers not to a group of people but to the complex pattern of the norms of interaction that arise among them. The important aspect of society is the system of relationships, the pattern of norms of interaction by which the members of the society maintain themselves. According to Ginsberg – A ‘Society’ is a collection of individuals united by certain relations or modes of behavior which mark them off from others who do not enter into these relations or who differ from them in behavior. Like rural society, agrarian society, literary society etc.
What is Social Structure ?
According to Talcott Parsons :- Social Structure is a term applied to the particular arrangement of the interrelated institutions agencies and social patterns as well as the status and roles which each person a assumes in the groups. From the above definitions we can understand social structure as :
Social structures is a abstract phenomenon
It refers to the external aspects of society Individual is the unit of social association, social institutions and these social association and institutions are part of social structure. These institutions and associations are inter related and created the pattern of social structure. Social structure is a patternised arrangement of human relationship structures.
What is Social Institution?
Institutions have been defined by Maciver as the established forms or conditions of procedures characteristics of group activity. According to Summer institutions consist of a concept (idea, notion, doctrine or interest) and a structure. The institutions are collective ways of behavior or a way of doing things and bind the group member together. For example family, school, temple, state and many other are the institutions of society.
What is Social Groups ?
A man is social animal, who can’t live in isolation; most of the routine activity that a man performs is in group. Therefore a social group is collections of human beings. According to Bogardus – A social groups may be thought of a number of persons, two or more, who have some common objects of attentions who are stimulating to each other, who have common loyalties and participate in similar activities.
What is Primary Group ?
A Primary group is a small group in which a small number of persons come into direct contact with one another. They meet face to face for mutual help, companionship and discuss on common questions. They live in the presence and thought about one another.
What is Secondary Group ?
A secondary group is one which is large in size such as a city, nation or political party. Here, human contacts become superficial and undefined. The relationship of the members are limited in scope and arrived at by much trial and error and in terms of self interest calculations of the members.
What is Reference groups ?
Man is an imitative animal. The desire to imitate others individuals is instinctive in him. When one finds another person progressing in life, he also desire to progress like him. He compares himself with other and begins behaving like them in order to reach their status and positions. Such behavior after comparisons with other is called reference behavior.
What is Social Stratification ?
The society is heterogeneous in nature we find rich and poor industrialists and peasantry, the rulers and beggars everywhere society is divided into various classes economic, political, social and religious. The process by which individuals and groups are ranked in more or less hierarchy of status is known as stratification.
What is Social Disorganization ?
Society is dynamic in nature when the various parts of society are properly adjusted, we have a well organized society but when they fail to adjust themselves to the changing conditions the result is social disorganization leading to social problems. Therefore Social disorganization can be explained as disruption or breakdown of the social relations and values resulting in the social isolation and conflict in the society.
What is Cultural lag approach ?
This approach of social disorganization is known as cultural lag approach of Ogburn. According to this approach social problems develop in the area of lag between the adoption of material changes and the formulation of appropriate social institution. The process o social change in which current social institutions do not satisfy human needs and different aspects of culture are not synchronized is thus, called ‘disorganization’. We can understand various forms of social disorganisation like unemployment, depression, poverty crime through cultural lag theory. The term cultural lag explained by Ogburn is based upon the distinctions between material and non-material cultural. Rapid changes lakes place in material cultural. Whereas slow changes in non material culture. According to this approach the disorganisation of modern family system is the result of lag in the continued functioning of a failure to develop suitable substitute for the old folkways and moral governing family relations.
What is Tribal Community ?
According to Oxford dictionary ”A tribe is a group of people in a primitive or barbarous stage of development acknowledging the authority of chief and usually regarding themselves as having a common a ancestor.”
D.N. Majumdar define tribe as a social group with territorial affiliation, endogamous with no specialization of functions ruled by tribe officers hereditary or otherwise united in language or dialect recognizing social distance with other tribes or castes.The constitution of India defines scheduled tribes under Article 366(25) as “such tribes or tribal communities or parts of groups within such tribes or tribal communities as are deemed under Article 342 to be scheduled tribe for the purpose of this constitution”The established criterion followed for specification of a community as scheduled tribe are indication of primitive traits, distinctive culture, geographical isolation, shyness of contact with the community at large and backwardness.