Social Case Work Process
Social case work process :-
There are there phases of social case work process : Intake and psycho-social study, social diagnosis treatment and termination. Intake :- Intake is an administrative procedure and not a process of social case work to take in the person with problem for example admit him or enroll him as a client of the agency. After this phase the case worker is able to asses the needs and problems of applicant person and how and where his needs can be best met.
Psycho-Social Study :-
Social investigation is a psycho-social process. It is the initial phase in which the worker gains his first understanding of the kind of help his clients needs. The worker must understand what the client sees his problem as, what he think can be cone about it, what he himself/herself tried to do about it, and what are the reasons the client has identified for his present difficulty.
Perlman has given the following contents of the case work study in the beginning phase:
- The nature of the problem
- The significance of this problem
- The causes of the problem.
- The efforts made to cope with problem solving
- The nature of the solutions or ends sought from the case work agency.
- The actual nature of the agency and its problem solving means in relation the client and his problems.
Perlman has suggested four methods for operating in the beginning phase:-
- Relating to the client
- Helping the client to talk about his troubles
- Focusing and partializing
- Helping the client to engage with the agency
Tools and Techniques in the beginning phase :-
- Objective observation
- Examination of records and documents
- Collection of information for collateral and family sources
- Special examination of test
Social Diagnosis (Assessment)
On the basis of the study of the problem in its past, present and future setting and the clients positive and negative reactions and interactions, the internal pressure and environmental factors the case worker asses or diagnose the clients problematic situation. Diagnosis is an explanation formulated in the light of known fact.Content of the social diagnosis
The content of the case work diagnosis fall into the triangular pattern. It consist of:-
- The nature of the problem brought and the goals set by the client, in their relationship
- The nature of the person who bears the problem (his social and psychological situation and functioning) and who seek (or needs) help with his problem, in relation.
- The nature and purpose of the agency and the kind of help it can offer and/or make available
Types of diagnosis
Perlman has described three types of diagnosis that is carried on in social case work process.These are :
- Dynamic Diagnostic
- Clinical diagnosis
- Etiological diagnosis
Dynamic Diagnosis :-
Gives on understanding of the current problem of the client and forces currently operating within the client, within social environment and between him/his environment. It is a cross sectional view of the forces currently operating in the clients problem. The dynamic diagnosis seeks to establish what the trouble is, what role psychological, biological, social and environmental factors are playing in the causation of the problems, what effect it has on the individuals well being. What solution is sought and what means exist within the client his situation and the organised services and resources by which the problem may be affected. In dynamic diagnosis there is no attempt to dig the life history of the problem, rather reasons for the problem are traced in the current situation.
Clinical diagnosis :-
Under clinical diagnosis, the case worker attempts to classify the client by the nature of his problem. He identifies certain forms and qualities of clients personality maladaptation and mal functioning in his behaviour.
Etiological diagnosis :-
Etiological diagnosis is concerned with the explanation of the beginning of the life history of problems of the client, basically that problem that lies in the clients personality make up or functioning . The history of his development or a problem encountering, problem solving human being may provide the case worker with an understanding of what his clients suffers from and what the extent of his coping ability is likely to be.
Steps in diagnosis :-The following steps are taken while diagnosing a problem :-
- The worker begins with focusing on problematic bahaviours. He investigate both functional and dysfunctional behaviours in his social milieu. He clarifies various complaints and problems in terms of excesses and deficits. He evaluates the client’s personal strengths and his surrounding environment.
- He targets the specified behaviour and break down complex behaviour into their component parts.
- Baseline data are collected to specify those events that appear to be currently controlling the problematic behaviours.
- An analysis and interpretation is done from collected information and objectives for intervention established.
- Selecting priorities for intervention is the final step of the diagnosis.
Intervention or treatment is the next step and it’s based on the study and diagnosis which indicates whether the problem is the result of personal or environmental factors and whether the remedy lies in the form of material or psychological assistance. The course of action undertaken by case worker after studying and understanding the problem has been described as treatment.
The objectives of social case work treatment
- To prevent social breakdown
- To conserve clients strength
- To restore social functioning
- To provide happy experiences to the client
- To create opportunities for growth and development
- To compensate psychological damage
- To increase capacity for self direction
- To increase his social contribution.
Social case work treatment process.
The process of intervention or treatment begins with initial contact with the client. The process of treatment passes through many phases i.e.
- Initial phase
- Motivation and role induction
- Primary contract
- Diagnosis and assessment
- Establishing treatment goals
- Developing treatment plan
- Preparation for actual treatment
- Treatment in practice
- Monitoring and evaluating the effects of treatment
- Planning of follow up termination of therapeutic relationship.
Application of Intervention Methods :-
In order to active goals set by the worker, conventionally the following methods of social intervention have been mentioned
- Direct Method
- Environment Modification
- Administration of Practical Service
1. Direct Method :-
Direct method of intervention is used to promote specific behaviour on the part of the client. According to Perlman it is a systematic intervention through which client can work over his problems and possible solutions. Here, the case worker applies his influence directly on the client. The techniques of direct intervention used where the clients needs direction because of his/her ignorance, anxiety and weakness of his/her strength. Direct intervention is given through counseling, therapeutic interviewing, clarification and interpretation, leading to an insight. Supportive intervention is provided through guidance, externalization of interests, re-assurance, suggestion, persuasion and advice.
- Counselling :-
It is direct intervention towards the solution of a problem in which a person find that he cannot solve the problem himself, therefore seeks the help if a skilled person whose knowledge, experience and expertise could be used to solve the problem. It is a psychological technique in which information and clarification are used for making the client aware of the problem.
- Therapeutic Interviewing :-
Therapeutic interview is used where intra-psychic conflict is present in the environment. The purpose of such interview is that of psychotherapy which aims at personality, competence and self actualizations. For the analysis of the unconscious, social case worker applies the techniques of free association, dream interpretation, analysis of resistance and transference. For behaviour modification, social case worker makes use of the techniques of positive enforcement, negative enforcement, positive punishment, negative punishment, systematic desensitization and covert desensitization. It is the process through which clarification about the client himself, his environment and the public with whom he is associated is made. Clarification may consist of information given to the client so that he becomes capable of understanding himself, his environment and his social network, which he does not posses and without which he cannot see clearly what step he ought to take.
- Psychological support :-
Psychological support is useful is decreasing tension and guilt, increasing self confidence, encouraging healthy functioning that maintains the clients equilibrium and in helping him to build up compensatory strength and satisfaction. The case worker accepts him and his feeling and shows keep interest in him. He clarifies the problem and encourages him to take his own decision- The social case worker helps him to strengthen clients’ ego through the techniques of guidance, reassurance, persuasion and psychological support.
2.Environmental Modification :-
Means to bring change in the social as well as physical conditions of the client so that he may be relieved from excessive stresses and strains. The case worker suggest positive steps to client to cope better with his problems. He plans with him emotional, professional and recreational activities. He gives appropriate advice to member of his environment and modifies their attitude favorably.
3.Administration of Practical Service :-
According to Hamilton administration of practical service is the oldest and best known case work method of intervention. Porter Lee was the first social worker who emphasized and classified such resource. Administration of practical services means to help the client in such a way that he could select and use the resources available in the community in this process social case worker helps the client for adequate knowledge of available resource through the techniques of discussion information classification and direction.