Social Development Definitions
Shankar Pathak has explained this in detail ha says that “Social development includes programs for universal literacy or primary education, comprehensive preventive health, measure and control of contagious diseases, housing, family planning and preservation of ecological balance. Moreover, social development philosophy assumes that a substantial investment is required for social services for which economic development is essential.”
Thus, social development is a comprehensive concept which implies major structural changes political, economic, cultural and its goal is to create a new society in place of the present where living condition of the people are improved so that they do not suffer from hunger and they are not denied the basic necessities of life.
Some other definitions of social development is described below:
M.S.Gore-“The concept of social development is inclusive of economic development but differ from it in the sense that it emphasis the development of totality of society in its economic, political, social and cultural aspects. In this sense social development planning is not concerned with planning exclusively for social services, any more than it is with the exclusive planning of economic growth. There are many areas, apart from social or welfare services, wherein the “social” perspective has relevance. Prominent among these are areas relating to population policy, policy relating to urbanization, industrial location and environmental pollution, policies relating to regional development, policies of income growth, income distribution and land reform, policies governing administration and peoples’ participation in planning and the implementation of plans”.
M.S. Rao-“Social development consists largely of efforts to improve the social situation in regard to social development, housing, health and nutrition, education and training, employment and working conditions, social security, social stability and social welfare”. P.N.Sharma and C.Shashtri-“Social development has been defined as a micro strategy of planned interventions to improve the capacity of existing social system to cope with demands of change and growth.”
ASSWI (Association of School of Social Work in India)-“Social development is a process of systematic change (values, attitudes, institutions and practices) purposefully initiated through the instruments of social policy and planning for enhancement of the levels of living and quality of life of the mass of people especially the weaker sections in an eco friendly, socially just and participator environment”.
By the analysis of various definitions, we find the following characteristics of social development:
- Social development is a program as well as a movement, approach and method of treating any broad based issue. Campaigning and mass mobilization are required much more in social development in comparison to social welfare.
- Social development may not provide direct type of ready made services with immediate solution of the problems. It means long term planning which is based on investing in people, environment and social system.
- Social development consist largely of efforts to improve the social situation in regard to developing, housing, health and nutrition, education and training, employment and working conditions, social security, social stability and social welfare.
- Social development is a process of systematic change purposefully initiated through the instrument of social policy and planning for the enhancement of the level of living and quality of life of the mass of people.
- Providing special assistance for social development programs and working to promote public and private assistance.
- Integrating poverty reduction and gender equity objectives into the program of structural adjustment.