Social Work Short Answer Type Questions
What is Psychoanalytical Theory ?
The theory propounded by Sigmund Freud. The theory believes that unconscious process plays important role in determining behavior and the behavior is the out come of the interaction of three subsystems of personality that is ‘id’, ‘ego’ and ‘super ego’. The ‘id’ consists of primitive biological drives and immediate gratification of needs. ‘Ego’ mediates between the demands of the ‘id’ and the realities of the external world. The third sub system ‘super ego’ develops by learning the taboos and moral values of the society.
It controls the ‘id’ and directs the ‘ego’ to hold back desires that are considered wrong or immoral. The interrelationship between these sub systems of personality are of crucial significance in determining behavior. There is regular conflict between the natural urge and drives of the ‘id’ with the demand of external world (ego and super ego). The adequate resolution of such conflicts by the ‘Ego’ is considered essential for personality development. According to the psychoanalytical theory every moment of human life is determinable by the consigns, preconscious and unconscious psychological processes.
What is Psycho-Social Theory ?
Gordon Hamilton wrote an article titled “The underlying philosophy of social case work” in 1941 in which the word ‘diagnosis’ was first used to express psycho-social problems. According to this theory the client is seen in the context of his interactions and transactions with the outer world. The history of the problem and impact on social function of the client is given due importance. It is considered that for proper diagnosis and treatment client’s social environment must be understood and mobilized. Treatment must be differentiated according to the need of the client.
What is Functional Theory ?
The theory was developed by the school of social work of the university of Pennsylvania in 1930. The theory believes that center for change is located in the client. The theorists used the world ‘helping’ instead of ‘treatment’. According to them social case work is not a form of social treatment but a method of administering some specific social service and creating such a psychological understanding in the client so that he may become skilful in utilizing the agency services.
What is Behavior Modification theory ?
The theory is based upon the principle of learning and conditioning propounded by Pavlov and Thorndike. In essence, behavioral modification is about decreasing undesired behavior and increasing desired behaviors with the systematic application of established principles of learning. The behaviorist theory viewed problems as essentially the result of a failure to learn necessary adaptive behaviors. The theory views maladjusted person as an individual who has learned faulty copping patterns and has failed to learn required competencies for coping with the problem he is facing.
What is The Electic approach in Social Work ?
It has been observed that no theoretical approach explains human behavior in a conclusive manner. Therefore, it is important to develop an electic approach, an approach that is characterized by a solid knowledge of many systems of theories and a skill for selecting useful concepts and techniques with reference to clients. Eclecticism approach does not believes in social worker choosing casually a methodology for client rather means electing a methodology purposefully with explainable reasons and with reference to particular client or clients. As every school of thought has its own strengths and limitation. The approach believes that skill of social worker lies in taking advantage of strengths of every school of thought in the best interest of the client.
What is Recording in Social Work ?
In social work practice recording has been given paramount importance. Social work in general and social case work in particular seeks detail investigation of an individual and his personality through interviews. In this process recording is a tool to organize scientifically and systematically all the relevant information related to the client. Records serves various purpose such as, recorded information is useful for learning purposes, it gives an opportunity to reflect back upon our interactions and to identify the wrong committed by us.Recording helps in organizing the information and observation. It helps in developing knowledge and literature. It helps in administrative and research purpose. It is useful for teaching purpose, recording is useful for evolution and recording offers constructive criticism for the writer and the reader both.
What are the major types of recording ?
There are three types of recording which may be used while recording.
Process recording – it is a detailed form of recording. Everything that takes place during a client in contact, including the workers feelings and thinking is noted down. It is extremely useful to the social workers striving to further develop understanding and skills in difficult situation in which the worker is developing new skills.
Summary recording – Summary records are short and easy way to use, it includes entry data, social history, a plan of action, periodic summaries of significant information, action taken by the worker and a statement of what war accomplished as the case gets closed. Summary records are important in situations where long term, ongoing contact with the client and a series of worker may be involved and provide a picture of what happened with the client.
Problem oriented recording :- It is a contemporary kind of recording used in interdisciplinary setting. Problem oriented records contain four parts. First there is a data base that contains information pertinent to client and work with the client. This includes such things as age, sex, marital status etc. Second is a problem list that includes a statement of initial complaints and assessment of the concerned staff. Third are plans and goals related to each identified problem. Further are follow-up notes about what was done and outcome of the activity.
What is Home Visit in Social Work ?
Home visit is an important tool used by the social worker for gathering information about client. The foundation for providing home based care by trained home visitor was laid by Florence Nightingale. Three terms are frequently used to describe the importnce for home visits : empowerment, enablement and enhancement. Empowerment can be described as facilitating or maintaining the client or families abilities to define its goal and make its own decisions. Enhancement indicates the concept of building upon strengths that already exists, and Enablement suggests helping families locate resources that can facilitate the families own decision. Cameron (1961) wrote on the importance of home visit as “In a few minutes in home, an experienced observer can gain more pertinent information about the client and his environment than can be gained during hours of probing in an office.”
What is Coping Mechanism ?
Coping mechanism is basically ‘adaptation skill’. They are tactics that people use is order to deal with stresses, pain and natural changes that we experience in life. Coping mechanism are learned behavioral patterns used to cope. There are two type of coping mechanism positive and negative. A person experiences range of emotions throughout his life i.e. good, not so good, bad etc. The behavior of an individual usually a result of how he handle his emotions. If emotions handled positively the outcome will be positive behavior if not the behavior will be considered as negative. There is variety of coping mechanism positive as well as negative. The positive coping mechanism could be grounding skills (stay focused, use all five senses), Manage stress, manage anger, communication, respect other, learn acceptance and forgiveness etc. Negative coping mechanism could be violence and abuse addiction, denial, developing a ‘false self’ running away, self harm, suicide attempt, depression etc.
Who comes under weaker sections?
it is difficult to define weaker sections as there is no uniformly accepted definition. There are some sections of society which might be considered as weaker sections due to their social and economical backwardness. Such as Scheduled Castes, which are traditionally regarded as ‘untouchables’ and socially disadvantaged. The scheduled tribe, which are geographically isolated not in the mainstream of the society living with primitive traits and other backward class, who are educationally and socially backward also considered weaker section of the society. The women, that constitutes almost half of the population but having minimum economic and political power also considered as weaker sections of the society.
Who comes under vulnerable section ?
It is difficult to distinguish between weaker and vulnerable sections as many people use them interchangeably, some factors are common in weaker and vulnerable section as both sections combined form the disadvantaged group of the society and need special attention of the civil society and the government. We can include certain section under vulnerable section such as – children, Aged and physically or mentally challenged people irrespective of their caste or class in the society. Their incapability due to their disability or age can easily exposed in the social, economical and ecological adversity.
Who comes under minority group ?
A minority group is a sociological category within a demographic, the term refers to a category that is differentiated and defined by the social majority, that is, those who hold the majority of positions of social power in a society. The differentiation between majority and minority can based on one or more observable human characteristics including for example, ethnicity, race, gender wealth, health or sexual orientation. Sociologist Louis wirth defined a minority group as “a group of people, because of their physical or cultural characteristics are singled out from the others in the society in which they live for deferential and unequal treatment, and who therefore, regard themselves as object of collective discrimination”. Minority group in a society can be categorized into many category such as:-
Racial or ethnic minorities – Every society contains ethnic minorities and linguistic minorities. Their life style, language, culture and origin can differ from the majority. The minority status is conditioned not only by clearly numerical relations but also by question of political power. Such as Blacks in South Africa under apartheid.
Gender and sexuality minorities :- In most of the societies including India men and women are considered equal still some people perceive status of women as a ‘subordinate’ group has laid some to equate them with minority. The lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people are also considered as sexual minorities.
Religious Minorities :- Person belonging to religions minorities have a faith which is different from that hold by the majority. Most countries including India have, religious minorities for example Islam, Christianity, Jainism, Sikhism considered as minority group in India.
What is Demographic Transition Theory ?
There are different interpretations have been given for this theory according to Frank Notestein and W.S. Thompson every country passed through three stages of population growth.
- High birth rate and high death rate
- High birth rate and low death rate (population explosion)
- Low birth rate and low death rate
What is Social Structure ?
According to Talcott Parsons :- Social Structure is a term applied to the particular arrangement of the interrelated institutions agencies and social patterns as well as the status and roles which each person a assumes in the groups. From the above definitions we can understand social structure as :
- Social structures is a abstract phenomenon
- It refers to the external aspects of society
- Individual is the unit of social association, social institutions and these social association and institutions are part of social structure.
- These institutions and associations are inter related and created the pattern of social structure.
- Social structure is a patternised arrangement of human relationship structures.
What is Social Institution ?
Institutions have been defined by Maciver as the established forms or conditions of procedures characteristics of group activity. According to Summer institutions consist of a concept (idea, notion, doctrine or interest) and a structure. The institutions are collective ways of behavior or a way of doing things and bind the group member together. For example family, school, temple, state and many other are the institutions of society.
What is Social Group ?
A man is social animal, who can’t live in isolation; most of the routine activity that a man performs is in group. Therefore a social group is collections of human beings. According to Bogardus – A social groups may be thought of a number of persons, two or more, who have some common objects of attentions who are stimulating to each other, who have common loyalties and participate in similar activities.
What are the types of Social Groups ?
There are basically three types of social groups. These groups may be discussed as under-Primary Group-A Primary group is a small group in which a small number of persons come into direct contact with one another. They meet face to face for mutual help, companionship and discuss on common questions. They live in the presence and thought about one another. Secondary Group-A secondary group is one which is large in size such as a city, nation or political party. Here, human contacts become superficial and undefined. The relationship of the members are limited in scope and arrived at by much trial and error and in terms of self interest calculations of the members. Reference groups – Man is an imitative animal. The desire to imitate others individuals is instinctive in him. When one finds another person progressing in life, he also desire to progress like him. He compares himself with other and begins behaving like them in order to reach their status and positions. Such behavior after comparisons with other is called reference behavior.
What is Integrated Approach to Social Work Practice ?
Integrated concept in social work is largely based on social system theory which assumes that each system is open to exchange from and influence by other system in its environment. It assumes that change in one system has the potential to influence the others to which it is relating. It is possible to believe that a change towards a particular ‘end state’ can be brought about by variety of means. No one method or one level of intervention is necessary uniquely suited to bring about the desired change. Therefore, an integrated approach to social work believes that higher degree of integration of methods of practice will change the way or approach of social workers and will produce more options and choice to practice professional social work.