Steps in scientific Research
Steps in scientific Research:
According to Theodorson and Theodorson (1969) scientific methods involves the following steps: First the problem is defined, second the problem is stated in terms of particular theoretical framework and related to relevant finding of previous research. Third, a hypothesis relating to the problem is developed. Forth, the procedure to be used in gathering data is gathered. Fifth, the data are analysed to determine if the hypothesis is accepted or rejected. Finally the conclusion of the study is related to the original body of theory which is modified in accordance with the new finding.
Earl Babbie in the book ‘Practice of Social Research’ has proposed the following six elements of a research proposal.
- Problem or objective i.e., stating what is to be studied, its worth and practical significance and its contribution to the construction of social theories.
- Literature review, i.e. what other have said about this topic, what theories have been addressed to it and what are the flaws in the existing research that can be remedied.
- Subject for study, i.e. from whom is the data to be collected, how to reach persons who are available for study whether selecting sample will be appropriate and if yes, how to select this sample and how to insure that research that is being conducted will not harm the respondents.
- Measurement, i.e. determining key variables for the study and how these variables will be defined and measured.
- Data collection method, i.e. determining methods to be used for collecting data survey or experiment etc., statistics to be used or not.
- Analysis i.e. spell out the logic of analysis whether variations in some quality are to be accounted or not and the possible explanatory variable to be analyzed.
Horton and Hunt (1984) have pointed out eight steps in scientific research
- Define the problem which is worth studying through the methods of science.
- Review of literature, so that errors of other scholars may not be repeated.
- Formulation of hypothesis, i.e. propositions which can be tested.
- Plan the research design i.e. outlining the process as to how, what and where the data is to be collected, processed and analyzed.
- Collection of data i.e. actual collection of facts and information in accordance with research design.
- Analysis of data i.e. classify tabulate and compare the data making whatever tests are necessary to get the results.
- Draw conclusion, i.e. whether the original hypothesis is found true or false and is confirmed or rejected or are the results inconclusive? What has the research added to our knowledge and what new question have been posed for further research.
- Replicate the study. Although the above mentioned seven steps complete a single research study but research finding are confirmed by replication.