Welfare Of The Weaker Section Of Society
The ministry of social justice & empowerment is the nodal ministry to oversee the interests of the scheduled castes. Constitutional safeguards as well as program for the protection and development of scheduled castes have been implemented by the government.
National commission for Scheduled Castes
The national commission for scheduled castes is a constitutional body monitors the safeguards for scheduled castes and also reviews issues concerning their welfare. The commission has been constituted on 25 may 2007.
Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955 and Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989
The following two acts specially aims at curbing untouchability and atrocities against Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe and therefore very important legislation.
Other important schemes are:
- Post metric scholarship
- Free coaching
- Babu Jagjivan Ram Chatrawas Yojana
- Dr. Ambedkar foundation
Development of scheduled tribes
Scheduled areas and Tribal areas: scheduled tribes live in contiguous areas unlike other communities. It is therefore, much simpler to have an areas approach for developments activities and also regulatory provision to protect their interests. In order to protect the interests of scheduled tribes provisions of Fifth Schedule and Sixth Schedule have been enshrined in the constitution. The Fifth schedule under article 244 (1) of constitution defines Scheduled areas or such areas as president may by order declare to be scheduled areas after consultation with the governor of the state.
The sixth schedule under article 244 (2) of the constitution related to those areas in the states of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram which are declared as tribal areas and provides for district council and /or regional councils for such areas. There councils have been conferred with wide ranging, legislative, judicial and exclusive power.
As per census 2001, there are 2.19 crore persons with disabilities and they constitute 2.13 percent of the total population of the country. These include persons with visuals, hearing, speech, loco motor and mental disabilities.
Person with Disabilities Act, 1995
A comprehensive law, namely the person with disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995 have been enacted and enforced in 1996. The law deals deals with both promotional and prevention aspects for the persons with disabilities.
Rehabilitation Council of India
The Rehabilitation council of India is a statutory body set up under the Rehabilitation Council of India Act, 1992. Its functions include:
- Standardization and regulation of training courses
- Recognition of Institutions running training courses in the area of the rehabilitation of the disabled within and outside the country on a reciprocal basis
- Promotion of research and rehabilitation and special education
- Maintenance of a central rehabilitation register
- Encouragement of continuing rehabilitation education program in collaboration with organizations working in the area of disability.
In order to effectively deal with the multi dimensional problem of the disabled population, the following national institutions/ apex level institutions have been set up in each major area of disability.
- National Institute of Visually Handicapped, Deharadun
- National Institute of Orthopedically Handicapped, Kolkata
- Ali Yavar Jung National Institute of Hearing Handicapped, Mumbai
- National Institute of Mentally Handicapped, Secundarabad
- National Institute of Rehabilitation, Training and Research, Cuttack
- Institute of the Physically Handicapped, New Delhi
- National Institute of for Empowerment of Persons with Multiple Disabilities, Chennai
Welfare of Aged Person
- National Policy for Older Person
- National Council for Older Persons
- Integrated Program Older Persons
The national policy for the older person was announced in January, 1999, with the primary objective to encourage individuals to make provisions for their own as well as their spouses’ old age; to encourage families to take care of their older family members; to enable and support non government organization to supplement care provided by the family; to provide care and protection to the vulnerable elderly people; to provide health care facility to the elderly; to promote research and training facilities; to train geriatric care givers and organizers of service for the elderly; and to create awareness regarding elderly persons to develop them into fully independent citizens.
The government has constituted the national council for older persons to advise the government on developing policies and programs for older persons. It provides feedback to the government on the implementation of the national policy on older persons.
Under this scheme financial assistance unto 90 percent of the project cost is provided to non government organizations for establishing and maintaining old age homes, day care centers, mobile medical units and to provide non-institutional service to older persons.